Those who camped out there were known as rezadores, or people praying to God that Ortega be protected and his opponents punished. Nuñez develops this argument in his book La Oligarquia en Nicaragua (Managua: Talleres de Grafitex, 2006). The party’s founders, Carlos Fonseca, Tomas Borge and Silvia Mayorga were outside the country when the FSLN was officially born. Accordingly, Ortega and Murillo have accused them of being in league with conservatives in an effort to reimpose the old order on Nicaragua. As Mónica Baltodano, the leader of is the Movement for the Rescue of Sandinismo (MPRS), a dissident Sandinista organization, argued in a recent article, Ortega’s fiscal and economic policies are, in fact, continuous with those of the previous governments, despite his anti-imperialist rhetoric and denunciations of neoliberalism.1 The government has signed new accords with the International Monetary Fund that do not modify the neoliberal paradigm, while the salaries of government workers remain frozen and those of teachers and health workers are the lowest in Central America. The Sandinista Revolution marked the era of the fall of the pro-imperialist military dictatorships in our continent, which allowed the Bolivarian Revolution to later usher in the era of the arrival of governments of various left-wing forces in Latin America, in various countries [the Pink Tide]. This is a historical date in which the revolution restored the rights of thousands and thousands of Nicaraguans that lived in extreme poverty. Shortly after the triumph of the Sandinista-led revolution 12 years ago, Nicaraguan artist Alejandro Canales began work on what was to become his most public--if not his most famous--painting. But also, it is anniversary of the re-defeat of the coup-mongers who tried to end the revolution. The Grayzone reports from inside Nicaragua’s capital on the 41st anniversary of the Sandinista Revolution, covering a speech by President Daniel Ortega, showing how the leftist government has responded to the coronavirus pandemic, and surveying the rising tide of US and corporate media disinformation. Those released included many figures who had been directly involved in the violence during the coup. Monarchy was the form of government of most tribes; the supreme ruler was the chief, or cacique, who, surrounded by his princes, formed the nobility. And that is when the Sandinista Front initiated the revolutionary struggle, against the dictatorship of [Anastasio] Somoza, in the year 1961. The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Spanish: Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a socialist political party in Nicaragua. But it is also true that some of the most famous Sandinistas, many of whom are in the dissident camp today—like Ernesto Cardenal, Gioconda Belli, Carlos Fernando Chamorro, and others—are descendents of oligarchic families. According to the Central Bank of Nicaragua, the average salary has dropped the last two years, retrogressing to 2001 levels.2. It’s not going to return. MANAGUA, NICARAGUA – July 19, 2020 was the 41st anniversary of the Sandinista Revolution, a historical watershed moment in which Nicaraguans overthrew a US-backed right-wing military dictatorship and inspired a wave of progressive movements across Latin America. One of the most important constituencies to take up the Sandinista cause was a signifi “Standing in the way of a new dictatorship,” he continued, “are civil society organizations, the independent media, trade unions, opposition political parties, women’s organizations, civic leaders and others—many of whom can trace their roots back to the resistance against Somoza.”. In October 1983, when a U.S. assault appeared imminent in the aftermath of the invasion of Grenada, the National Directorate adopted the slogan “All Arms to the People” and distributed more than 200,000 weapons to the militias and popular organizations. A leader in the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Spanish : Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional ; FSLN), he implemented policies to achieve leftist reforms across Nicaragua. Its members are called Sandinistas [sandiˈnistas] in … In August, after Cardenal criticized Ortega at Lugo’s inauguration, a judge revived an old, previously dismissed case involving a German citizen who sued Cardenal in 2005 for insulting him.11, The money-laundering investigation against the MAM and Cinco was officially dropped January 22, although the prosecutor recommended a further audit of the organizations' finances. While the district attorney buried the case, González was charged and convicted of slander. SOUTH FL. Like this article? YOUNG SANDINISTA WOMAN 2: Nicaragua is a country that is full of entrepreneurial people, of people who like to work. Then we returned to government. The ministry was established in order to socialize the modes of cultural production. 11. The adoption of a new constitution in 1986 marked yet another step forward in the democratic process. So a big role was to help people from the States, get them to come down here and learn about the revolution, and learn about the US wars. Because this affects the economy. I mean it’s been the same thing all along. This was not a revolutionary government conducted, in the classical sense, by a … Because of the external pressure, this government has been forced to make massive concessions. The Nicaraguan revolution Was known as an"open process"that extended from 1978 to 1990 and succeeded in overthrowing the dictatorship of the Somoza dynasty by instituting a progressive leftist government.. The Sandinista revolution’s commitment to democracy led it down a new political path. The Nicaraguan Revolution was ultimately responsible for the death of 2% of the Nicaraguan population, 50,000 people. He declared: “This is the time to strengthen our institutions,” later adding, “We cannot go back to the road of war, to confrontation, to violence.” Along with the regular police, Ortega stood flanked by camisas rosadas, or redshirts, members of his personal security force. After the Nicaraguan revolution, the Sandinista government established a Ministry of Culture in 1980. Once again the popular organizations mobilized for the campaign, and virtually all the polls indicated that Ortega would win a second term as president, defeating the Contra-backed candidate, Violeta Chamorro, whose campaign received generous funding from the United States. Despite all three countries being attacked via illegal unilateral coercive measures imposed by the US government, followed by its […] Roger Burbach and Orlando Nuñez, Fire in the Americas, Forging a Revolutionary Agenda (Verso, 1987). The concept of revolución compartida is developed in Sergio Ramírez, Adios muchachos: una memoría de la revolución sandinista (Mexico City: Aguilar, 1999). MAX BLUMENTHAL: After the defeat of Somoza, thousands of US citizens flocked to Nicaragua to support the Sandinista Revolution, and to oppose their government’s dirty war. And more than 100,000 US citizens came here to live for one month to years. An estimated 50,000 Nicaraguans were dead, 120,000 were exiles in neighboring countries, and 600,000 were homeless. And he has given this place to women, and above all to young people. This is the date when a dictatorship was overthrown, which for more than 45 years, kept all Nicaraguans struggling in poverty. We see women magistrates, women diplomats, women who play political roles. The Nicaraguan Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the violent campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, and the Contra War, which … Later General Sandino was assassinated. He returned home to the Sandinista Front following President Daniel Ortega’s election in 2006. Sign up for our NACLA Update for announcements, events, the latest articles, and more! To begin the task of establishing a new government, they created a Council (or junta) of National Reconstruction, made up of five appoin… Founding In 1961, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, or Sandinistas) was founded by Silvio Mayorga, Tomás Borge, and Carlos Fonseca.The group took its name from Augusto Cesár Sandino, who led a Liberal peasant army against the government of U.S.-backed Adolfo Díaz and the subsequent Nicaraguan government in the late 1920s and early 1930s. The Grayzone reports from inside Nicaragua’s capital on the 41st anniversary of the Sandinista Revolution, covering a speech by President Daniel Ortega, showing how the leftist government has responded to the coronavirus pandemic, and surveying the rising tide of … The Palestinian resistance played a crucial role in the Sandinista revolution. The ministry was established in order to socialize the modes of cultural production. But then we lost the government, because of political blackmail done by imperialism, [with the US] threatening the people with more war if the Sandinista Front won the elections. The Sandinista revolution’s commitment to democracy led it down a new political path. 4. 41 years on from the revolutionary triumph of 1979, the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) in Nicaragua looks stronger and with greater legitimacy than ever. The Ministry of Government launched a probe into NGOs operating in the country, accusing the Center for Communications Research (Cinco), which is headed by Chamorro, of “diverting and laundering money” through its agreement with the Autonomous Women’s Movement (MAM), which opposes the Ortega-endorsed law banning abortion. 9. The fact is that the Sandinista Revolution Celebration … During an interview in January, Baltodano told me the right to assembly has been systematically violated during the past year, as opposition demonstrations are put down with goon squads. The 1979 triumph of the Sandinista Revolution and the Sandinista National Liberation Front's resistance of U.S. efforts to oust it from power inspired thousands of individuals from all over the world to support Nicaragua's struggle for self-determination. As the Nobel-winning novelist José Saramago put it: “Once more a revolution has been betrayed from within.” Nicaragua’s revolution has indeed been betrayed, perhaps not as dramatically as Trotsky depicted Stalin’s desecration of what was best in the Bolshevik revolution. YOUNG SANDINISTA WOMAN: As a woman, I am very grateful for the government for giving us such a leadership role. Nicaragua never imposed a full quarantine and didn’t shut down the entire economy, instead taking a middle-of-the-road approach that balanced its people’s economic needs with public health concerns. At these meetings, about 2,500 Nicaraguans made suggestions for changes in the constitution. We are talking about imperialism. But we Sandinistas, this country, we want peace, we want reconciliation. SANDINISTA MOTHER: Yes. But even with Alemán’s backing, Ortega was unable to win the presidency. Their complaints were echoed by Nicaraguan Catholic bishops, including Managua’s archbishop, who said, “People feel defrauded.”13, After the election, militant demonstrations erupted in Nicaragua’s two largest cities, Managua and León, and were quickly put down with violence. Immediately following the fall of the Somoza regime, Nicaragua was largely in ruins. 13. “How to Steal an Election,” The Economist, November 13, 2008. And the government of national reconciliation and unity has raised the stakes for entrepreneurs,for small-business owners, for the producers that sacrifice day after day to make the food that we eat. The story of the struggle of Sandinismo is 92 years long, since the General Sandino fought against the US troops that invaded our country, and he expelled the US troops. The police rummaged through offices, carting off files and computers. “Violeta,” she said, “because I want my son in the Sandinista army to come home alive.”. In 2007 the government opened a case against nine women leaders, accusing them of conspiring “to cover up the crime of rape in the case of a 9-year-old rape victim known as ‘Rosita,’ who obtained an abortion in Nicaragua in 2003.”9 In August, Ortega was unable to attend the inauguration of Paraguayan president Fernando Lugo because of protests by the country’s feminist organizations; from then on, women’s mobilizations have occurred in other countries Ortega has visited, including Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Peru.10, Charges were levied against other former Sandinistas who dared to speak out against the Ortega government, including 84-year-old Catholic priest Ernesto Cardenal, the renowned poet who once served as minister of culture. At the end, with the desperation that it had, Somoza’s presidential guard forces bombarded all of the eastern neighborhoods, where I was. MAX BLUMENTHAL: The 40th anniversary of the Sandinista Front was occasion to honor the historic combatants of the movement. BBC, “1984: Sandinistas Claim Election Victory,” available at news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday. Cinco’s board of directors were interrogated, and a prosecutor accompanied by the police raided the Cinco offices with a search warrant. Ortega and his longtime companion, Rosario Murillo, announced their conversion to Catholicism and were married by the cardinal. And the question now is how much reconciliation is it willing to offer for the price of peace? “Dissident Sandinistas and their organizations,” he said, “cannot recruit the poor, the peasants, the workers, nor mount a significant electoral challenge.” Nuñez, who works as an adviser on social affairs to the president’s office, went on to argue that Ortega allied with Alemán not out of political cynicism, but for the sake of building an anti-oligarchic front. We already know what it’s about; that Yankee imperialism, unfortunately, is always interfering in countries like Nicaragua, in poor countries that try to make a political change. ... the revolutionary leader, ... and its government has supporters as well as detractors. Consolidation of the Revolution, 1979-80. I will attempt to demonstrate how it was that despite the overwhelming support of He traveled to the Pacific coast and the Atlantic area where he met with representatives of the misurasata (Miskito, Sumo, Rama, and Sandinistas United) organization. Founding In 1961, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, or Sandinistas) was founded by Silvio Mayorga, Tomás Borge, and Carlos Fonseca.The group took its name from Augusto Cesár Sandino, who led a Liberal peasant army against the government of U.S.-backed Adolfo Díaz and the subsequent Nicaraguan government in the late 1920s and early 1930s. The election was monitored by “at least 460 accredited observers from 24 countries,” who unanimously described it as fair.4 A reported 83% of the electorate participated, and Ortega won with almost 67% of the votes.5 The election demonstrated that a revolutionary government can solidify its hold on power in the midst of conflict, not by adopting increasingly dictatorial powers but by building mass democratic support. I think we fool ourselves when we think, “Oh the US, they’re accepting the Sandinistas.”. And Chamorro was denounced in the Sandinista-controlled media as a “delinquent,” a “narco-trafficker,” and a “robber of peasant lands.”, The harassment of Chamorro and other government critics continued during the run-up to Nicaragua’s November 2008 municipal elections, which were widely viewed as a referendum on the Ortega administration. But this bold Sandinista experiment in revolutionary democracy was not destined to persevere. However, according to Arturo Cruz, the absence of investment by the private sector made it clear that it would be hard to implement socialism in Nicaragua. My mother is Blanca Segovia, the only daughter of General Sandino. Besides the FSLN, two major political parties remained on the ballot, the Liberal Constitutionalist Party and the Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance. This is pressure to force our government to make changes, to do things that are good for them. So the neoliberal stage began, in which we defended the revolutionary principles of the front. He was a “fellow traveler” during the Sandinista revolutionary years, collaborating with the FSLN Directorate of International Relations in analyzing U.S. political and military strategies. And we had a duty to support the guerrillas,here in the capital, supporting urban guerrillas. “Ortega is establishing an authoritarian regime, sectarian, corrupt, and repressive, to maintain his grip on power, betraying the legacy of the Sandinista revolution,” she said. We Nicaraguans feed them. The history goes back to 1926 when the hero of the resistance Augusto Sandino begins to carry out a revolution against the North American occupation and the mandate of Anastasio Somoza Garci'a. Today we commemorate 40 years of the triumph of the revolution, which is also a historical landmark on a global level. The government’s response to the bad publicity was swift and ruthless. CBC News, “Latin American Artists Protest Persecution of Nicaraguan Poet,” September 6, 2008, available at cbc.ca. And we are celebrating a victory: the 40th anniversary of the popular Sandinista Revolution. In 1984, in the midst a deteriorating economy and the escalating Contra war, the country held an election in which seven candidates vied for the presidency. Nevertheless, we are independent. The Sandinista government attributes this to an unorthodox strategy it adopted at the beginning of the outbreak. Nevertheless, they keep acting in this wrong way, I think. MARCELA PÉREZ SILVA: The significance of this celebration is 40 years of the triumph of the Sandinista Revolution. Fonseca had been recently expelled by the Somoza dictatorship and was trying to build the movement from abroad. Dora Maria Tellez, a leader of the renovation movement, began a public hunger strike that led to daily demonstrations of support, often shutting down traffic in downtown Managua. Describe the mood in the ’80s and what brought you and so many others down here. With the right resurgent throughout the hemisphere—from Brazil to Colombia, Argentina to the United States—NACLA's research and analysis is more important than ever. These figures all work to emphasize the values present in the Revolution and the governments that followed it. And then, decades later, the Sandinista National Liberation Front [FSLN] was formed. YOUNG SANDINISTA WOMAN 2: We have seen that the government created a house for pregnant women; because we have the Berta Calderon Hospital, where women with cancer can be checked. In June 2007, Chamorro aired an investigative report on Esta Semana, the popular news show he hosts. Feb. 4: Ecosocialismo: Envisioning Latin America’s Green New Deal (Virtual Event). It was an experience totally different from that of Cuba, where the prohibition of U.S. travel to the island meant that only organized delegations arrived via Mexico or Canada with assigned accommodations and structured tours. And as a young person I am of course very grateful for all of the opportunities given to us by the government of Comandante Daniel and Comrade Rosario. And how is it different today? However in 1990, the FSLN lost the general election to the Right, with Violeta Chamorro, the widow of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, elected president. The ministry was spearheaded by Ernesto Cardenal, a famous poet and priest. We have, last week we created a solar power plant in Corn Island. To round out his pre-election wheeling and dealing, Ortega selected Jaime Morales, a former Contra leader, as his vice presidential candidate. This was a socialist revolutionary group founded in 1962 and named after Augusto Sandino, a hero of the resistance to U.S. military occupation between 1927 and 1933. According to this theory, Alemán and the somocistas represent an emergent capitalist class that took on the old oligarchy, which had dominated Nicaraguan politics and the economy since the 19th century.8 A major thrust of Ortega’s rhetoric is bent on attacking the oligarchy, which is clustered in the opposition Conservative Party. See more ideas about revolution, nicaragua, american war. While independent surveys indicated that the opposition candidates would win the majority of the seats, the Supreme Electoral Council, which had prohibited international observers, ruled that the Sandinista candidates won control of 105 municipalities, the Liberal Constitutionalist Party won 37, and the Alliance won the remaining six. Palestine’s Role in the Revolution. According to the report, which included tape-recorded conversations, FSLN functionaries tried to extort $4 million from Armel González, a partner in a tourist development project called Arenas Bay, in exchange for a swift end to the project’s legal woes, which included challenges from campesino cooperatives over land disputes. I wrote this during my four-month accidental-study-abroad in Nicaragua. Somoza plunged the country into institutional chaos a… So Nicaragua is progressing on the road toward prosperity. Today, they have a dignified home, with free healthcare, with free education. 14, November 27–December 3, 2008, available at sepres.gob.ni. And it’s never been true. MAX BLUMENTHAL: The Sandinista front is named for Augusto Sandino, the Nicaraguan revolutionary leader who led a guerrilla war on occupying US Marines between 1927 and 1933. 41 years on from the revolutionary triumph of 1979, the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) in Nicaragua looks stronger and with greater legitimacy than ever. So the Nica Act, we Nicaraguans are not interested in it. Sandinista veterans I spoke to saw the defeat of last year’s coup in the same light as previous armed struggles, going back to 1979. Each one of those marks an era: The Cuban Revolution kicked off the era of revolutionary armed struggle, the product of which was the Sandinista Revolution. I will attempt to demonstrate how it was that despite the overwhelming support of 4W, NEW YORK, NY 10012 | TEL: (212) 992-6965. It was an 18-year guerrilla struggle, which culminated with the triumph of the revolution. On the 40th anniversary of the Sandinista revolution, some Nicaraguans say there is no reason to celebrate. Fonseca had been recently expelled by the Somoza dictatorship and was trying to build the movement from abroad. This agreement, financed by eight European governments and administered by Oxfam, aims to promote “the full citizenship of women.” First lady Murillo called it “Satan’s fund” and “the money of evil.”. His followers became a leftist guerrilla who was implicated in the massacre of several US Marines, initiating a fight that would be maintained until 1934 when Somoza suggested to him to establish a peace agreement and in this murderous meeting the leader of left . Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) propaganda poster in Nicaragua. The Nicaraguan Revolution was a decades-long process meant to liberate the small Central American country from both U.S. imperialism and the repressive Somoza dictatorship. I will examine this electoral defeat as the last in a series of setbacks that prevented a revolutionary society from emerging. MAX BLUMENTHAL: After the celebration ended, we headed out to the streets of Managua to speak to grassroots Sandinistas, and hear why they are so committed to a government that has been relentlessly demonized in Western media. This would not have been possible without the defeat of the Somoza dictatorship. In 1936, Anastasio Somoza García, the head of Nicaragua’s army deposed the elected President, Juan Bautista Sacasa (who was also Somoza’s uncle), and installed himself as President. Less than a year after their victory, the Sandinistas controlled the government. After over a decade of failed attempts, the FSLN overthrew dictator Anastasio Somoza in 1979. I asked her what was wrong, and she said, “Daniel will no longer be my president.” After exchanging a few more words, I asked whom she had voted for. 7. His father helped launch the armed struggle against Somoza, and was killed by the dictator’s men in 1976. And thanks to the revolution, this was ended. He is no longer a revolutionary Marxist, and critics accuse him of … The FSLN’s pact making began in earnest in 2001, when, in the run-up to that year’s presidential election, Ortega forged an alliance with Arnoldo Alemán, an official during the Somoza regime who had been elected president in 1997. Cero led daring raids on Somoza’s forces during the 1970s, but flipped to the US-backed Contras during Nicaragua’s civil war. Support our work. Roger Burbach directs the Center for the Study of the Americas (CENSA), based in Berkeley, California (globalalternatives.org). The Sandinista government attributes this to an unorthodox strategy it adopted at the beginning of the outbreak. I will examine this electoral defeat as the last in a series of setbacks that prevented a revolutionary society from emerging. NACLA | c/o NYU CLACS, 53 WASHINGTON SQ. The inability to advance the revolution in Central America seemed to confirm Leon Trotsky’s belief that a revolution cannot survive and mature in just one nation—especially in small countries like Nicaragua with porous borders, which, unlike island Cuba, lend themselves to infiltration and repeated forays from well-provisioned military bases. See also Nuñez, “La Agonía política de la oligarquia,” El 19 no. MAX BLUMENTHAL: 40 years to the day that the Sandinista Front defeated a US-backed dictatorship, President Daniel Ortega stood before hundreds of thousands of Nicaraguans in the plaza behind me, and promised to fight for peace and reconciliation with an opposition that is funded by the United States, which is extremely violence, and which is still dead-set on regime change. In a statement, Cinco director Sofia Montenegro later demanded that the government investigators be fired for abuse of power.12. 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